GAITRite

Evidence Reviewed as of before: 22-10-2012
Author(s): Katie Marvin, MSc. PT
Editor(s): Annabel McDermott, OT;; Nicol Korner-Bitensky, PhD OT
Expert Reviewer: Dr Suzanne Kuys, PhD; B Physiotherapy (Hons)

Purpose

The GAITRite system was developed in response to the need for an objective way to quantify gait and ambulatory status. The GAITRite System measures spatio-temporal parameters of gait such as cadence, step length and velocity, providing clinically relevant information that is useful in devising treatment plans and evaluating treatment outcomes. The system tracks parameters over time and can be used to generate progress and status reports.

In-Depth Review

Purpose of the measure

The GAITRite System was developed in response to the need for an objective way to quantify gait and ambulatory status. Spatio-temporal parameters of gait, such as cadence, step length and velocity, are recorded and calculated using the GAITRite System and software. The GAITRite System tracks parameters over time and can be used to generate progress and status reports, providing clinically relevant information that is useful in devising treatment plans and evaluating treatment outcomes. While visual assessment of gait is more commonly used clinically, studies have demonstrated poor reliability.

According to producers of the GAITRite system (2010), the system can aid in the following tasks:

  • Documentation of gait patterns prior to any intervention
  • Measurement of functional ambulation immediately following treatment/intervention
  • Documentation of the effect of intervention
  • Identification of the relationship between objective gait parameters and subjective findings
  • Refinement of proper alignment and fit of prosthetics & orthotics
  • Selection of appropriate assistive devices
  • Objective measurement to justify ongoing intervention

Available versions

There are no other available versions.

Features of the measure

Items:

An electronic walkway (61cm wide x 288cm long – additional custom sizes are available), containing a total of 18,432 sensors sensor pads, is connected to the USB port of Windows® XP/Vista/7 personal computer (CIR Systems, Inc., 2010).

What to consider before beginning:

  • Assess patients’ balance and gait abilities prior to having them walk across the GAITRite walkway, to ensure adequate support is provided during assessment.
  • Barefoot testing is not recommended.

Scoring and Score Interpretation:

The GAITRite System provides spatio-temporal parameters of gait; it does not provide a score.

Time:

The setup of the GAITRite System is reported to be time efficient. The GAITRite System administration time is dependent on patient ambulation speed and efficiency.

Training requirements:

The GAITRite System has been reported to yield highly accurate and reliable data regardless of the examiner. However, in order to ensure consistency in testing protocol, the manufacturers of GAITRite System, CIR Systems, offer an Examiner Accreditation course. Examiners who successfully complete the accreditation process are awarded an accreditation certificate valid for a period of 1 year. Do you know how long the course is?
Please contact CIR Systems for further details.

Equipment:

For further information regarding equipment and set-up, please refer to the GAITRite Electronic Walkway Technical Reference guide:
http://www.gaitrite.com/Downloads/GAITRite_Measurement_Definitions.pdf

Alternative Forms of GAITRite

There are no alternative forms of the GAITRite System reported, however there are different model numbers.

Client suitability

Can be used with:

  • Patients with stroke.
  • Patients requiring assistive devices and ambulatory aids such as crutches, walkers, or canes (GAITRite, 2010).
  • Patients utilizing biped and quadruped locomotion (CIR Systems, Inc., 2012).

Should not be used in:

  • None reported.

Languages of the measure

The GAITRite system is not a language based assessment tool.

Summary

What does the tool measure? Spatio-temporal parameters of gait.
What types of clients can the tool be used for? The GAITRite system can be used with, but is not limited to, clients with stroke.
Is this a screening or assessment tool? Assessment
Time to administer The time to administer is dependent on familiarity of system set-up and use, and patient ambulatory status.
Versions There are no alternative versions.
Other Languages Not applicable.
Measurement Properties
Reliability

Test re-test:

One study found excellent test re-test reliability of the GAITRite system among patients with (stage of) stroke.

Validity

Concurrent:

One study found moderate to excellent concurrent validity of the GAITRite system with the Clinical Stride Analyzer in a healthy population.

Floor/Ceiling Effects No studies have examined the floor or ceiling effects of the GAITRite system in clients with stroke.
Does the tool detect change in patients? No studies have examined the responsiveness of the GAITRite system in clients with stroke. However, the GAITRite system has the capacity to track parameters over time and can be used to generate progress and status reports.
Acceptability There is no placement of devices on the patient allowing the patient to ambulate as close to their usual as possible.
Feasibility The GAITRite system is portable and can be laid over any flat surface (CIR Systems, Inc., 2010).
How to obtain the tool?

For further information on the GAITRite system, please contact:

CIR Systems, Inc
376 Lafayette Ave, Suite 202
Sparta, NJ 07871

Toll Free: (888) 482-2362
Phone: (973) 862-6151
Fax: (973) 862-6451
Email: sales@gaitrite.com

Psychometric Properties

Overview

A literature search was conducted to identify all relevant publications on the psychometric properties of the GAITRite System. One study involving patients with stroke, and another involving healthy adults were identified and reviewed for the purposes of this module.

Floor/Ceiling Effects

No studies have investigated the floor or ceiling effects of the GAITRite System in patients with stroke.

Reliability

Internal constancy:
No studies have investigated the internal consistency of the GAITRite System in patients with stroke.

Test-retest:
Kuys, Brauer and Ada (2011) examined the test-retest reliability of the GAITRite System in measuring spatio-temporal parameters of gait (i.e gait speed, cadence, step length (paretic and non-paretic limb), step time (paretic and non-paretic limb), stance phase as a percentage of the gait cycle (paretic and non-paretic limb) in a group of 21 people following stroke undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Participants were asked to walk the distance of the GAITRIte walkway two separate times within 48 hours, at a self-selected speed. Test-retest reliability was found to be excellent for all spatio-temporal parameters in the overall group (ICC=0.72-0.94), as calculated using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Patients were also categorized as ‘poor’ and ‘better’ ambulators, using the Motor Assessment Scale score (MAS) (poor: MAS Item 5 score 3 – 4, average gait speed = 0.54 m/s; better: MAS Item 5 score 5 – 6, average gait speed = 0.79 m/s). The test-retest reliability was found to be stronger for poorer ambulators compared to better ambulators (ICC ≥ 0.57 vs ICC ≥ 0.41). Results of this study indicate that test-retest reliability of the GAITRite System is slightly higher for individuals with more limited mobility.

Intra-rater:
No studies have investigated the intra-rater reliability of the GAITRIte System in patients with stroke.

Inter-rater:
No studies have investigated the inter-rater reliability of the GAITRite System in patients with stroke.

Validity

Content:

No studies have investigated the content validity of the GAITRIte System in patients with stroke.

Criterion:

Concurrent:
Bilney, Morris and Webster (2002) compared the concurrent validity of the GAITRite System with the Clinical Stride Analyzer (CSA) for quantification of the spatio-temporal gait parameters (gait speed, cadence, stride length, single leg support time – right and left, double limb support as a percentage of the gait cycle – right and left) in 25 healthy subjects. The CSA was selected as the criterion measure due to its wide clinical use in measuring spatiotemporal parameters of gait. Subjects were asked to walk the GAITRite walkway over three trials at three different speeds: self-selected speed, fast and slow speed. Excellent concurrent validity was found between the two measures for speed, cadence and stride length (ICC=0.99) at self-selected, slow and fast speeds, as calculated using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Concurrent validity for quantification of single leg stance phase was found to be moderate to excellent (ICC = 0.52-0.86 across the three gait speeds); and double limb support as a percentage of gait cycle was also found to have moderate to excellent concurrent validity (ICC = 0.44-0.57) between the two measures.

Predictive:
No studies have investigated the predictive validity of the GAITRIte System in patients with stroke.

Sensitivity/ Specificity:
No studies have investigated the sensitivity/specificity of the GAITRite System in patients with stroke.

Construct:

Convergent/Discriminant:
No studies have investigated the convergent or discriminant validity of the GAITRite System in patients with stroke.

Known Groups:
No studies have investigated the known groups validity of the GAITRite System in patients with stroke.

Responsiveness:

No studies have investigated the responsiveness of the GAITRite System in patients with stroke.

References

  • Bilney, B., Morris, M. & Webster, K. (2003). Concurrent related validity of the GAITRite walkway system for quantification of the spatial and temporal parameters of gait. Gait and Posture, 17, 68-74.
  • Kuys, S.S., Brauer, S.G. & Ada, L. (2011). Test-retest reliability of the GAITRite System in people with stroke undergoing rehabiliation. Disability and Rehabilitation, 33 (19-20), 1848. 1853.

See The Measure

For further information regarding obtaining a GAITRite system, please contact CIR Systems, Inc.:

CIR Systems, Inc.
376 Lafayette Ave, Suite 202
Sparta, NJ 07871

Toll Free: (888) 482-2362
Phone: (973) 862-6151
Fax: (973) 862-6451
Email: sales@gaitrite.com

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